PICO ontology

Cochrane PICO Ontology

The PICO model is widely used and taught in evidence-based health care as a strategy for formulating questions and search strategies and for characterizing clinical studies or meta-analyses . PICO stands for 4 different potential components of a clinical question:

  • Patient, Population or Problem
    • What are the characteristics of the patient or population (demographics, risk factors, pre-existing conditions, etc)?
    • What is the condition or disease of interest?
  • Intervention
    • What is the intervention under consideration for this patient or population?
  • Comparison
    • What is the alternative to the intervention (e.g. placebo, different drug, surgery)?
  • Outcome
    • What are the relevant outcomes (e.g. quality of life, change in clinical status, morbidity, adverse effects, complications)?

We have identified 3 different sorts of PICOs within Cochrane reviews and we plan to build our models so that all 3 can be annotated. They are:

  1. The Review (or study selection criteria) PICO. This is documented in the Methods:Criteria for considering studies for this review section of the review
  2. The Comparison PICOs - These are taken from the analyses in the Review - initially from the forest plots, although this may be extended at some point in the future
  3. The Included Study PICOs - with each included study having its own set of PICOs
IRI:
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Current version:
1.0.0
Ontology source:
pico-ontology.ttl

Classes

Agec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Age

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The age of a population group
is in range of
ageop

AppliedInterventionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/AppliedIntervention

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Abstract class, the intervention applied (procedure, materials etc)
is in range of
appliedInterventionop

Conditionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Condition

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Conditions for example illness or disease.
is in range of
conditionop, outcomeConditionop

Dosec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Dose

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Dose in an intervention
is in range of
doseop

Durationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Duration

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Duration of an intervention
is in range of
durationop

Interventionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Intervention

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An intervention in a PICO question is an action under consideration for this population.
is in domain of
appliedInterventionop, doseop, durationop, interventionClassificationop, interventionProviderop, isComparatordp, modeOfDeliveryop, parentInterventionop, scheduleop, settingop
is in range of
excludedInterventionop, interventionop, parentInterventionop

Intervention Classificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/InterventionClassification

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The type of intervention
is in range of
interventionClassificationop

InterventionGroupc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/InterventionGroup

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An intervention group is a group of interventions for example an arm of a trial.
is in domain of
excludedInterventionop, interventionop
is in range of
interventionGroupop

InterventionProviderc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/InterventionProvider

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The provider of an intervention
is in range of
interventionProviderop

ModeOfDeliveryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/ModeOfDelivery

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Mode of delivery for an intervention
is in range of
modeOfDeliveryop

Outcomec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Outcome

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The desired outcome of an intervention.
is in domain of
outcomeClassificationop, outcomeConditionop, outcomeTextdp, parentOutcomeop
is in range of
excludedOutcomeop, outcomeop, parentOutcomeop

OutcomeClassificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/OutcomeClassification

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Classification scheme describing the type of outcome
is in range of
outcomeClassificationop

OutcomeGroupc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/OutcomeGroup

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An outcome group is a group of outcomes.
is in domain of
excludedOutcomeop, outcomeop
is in range of
outcomeGroupop

PICOc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/PICO

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
A PICO class represents an object that defines a research or a clinical question.
is in domain of
excludedPopulationop, interventionGroupop, outcomeGroupop, populationop

Populationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Population

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
A population defines a group of people/patient in a PICO question.
is in domain of
ageop, conditionop, sexop
is in range of
excludedPopulationop, populationop

Schedulec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Schedule

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Schedule of an intervention
is in range of
scheduleop

Settingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Setting

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Setting of an intervention
is in range of
settingop

Sexc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/Sex

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The sex of a population group
is in range of
sexop

Object Properties

ageop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/age

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The age of a population
has domain
Populationc
has range
Agec

appliedInterventionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/appliedIntervention

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Associates an appliedIntervention (material, procedure) with a PICO Intervention instance.
has domain
Interventionc
has range
AppliedInterventionc

conditionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/condition

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
A precondition of the population.
has domain
Populationc
has range
Conditionc

doseop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/dose

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Dose used in an intervention
has domain
Interventionc
has range
Dosec

durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/duration

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
duration of an intervention
has domain
Interventionc
has range
Durationc

excludedInterventionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/excludedIntervention

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An excluded intervention.
has domain
InterventionGroupc
has range
Interventionc

excludedOutcomeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/excludedOutcome

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An excluded outcome.
has domain
OutcomeGroupc
has range
Outcomec

excludedPopulationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/excludedPopulation

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An excluded sub-population.
has domain
PICOc
has range
Populationc

interventionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/intervention

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An intervention
has domain
InterventionGroupc
has range
Interventionc

interventionClassificationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/interventionClassification

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The type of intervention.

interventionGroupop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/interventionGroup

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
An intervention group
has domain
PICOc
has range
InterventionGroupc

interventionProviderop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/interventionProvider

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Intervention provider of an intervention

modeOfDeliveryop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/modeOfDelivery

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
mode of delivery
has domain
Interventionc
has range
ModeOfDeliveryc

outcomeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/outcome

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Relates a outcome group to an outcome
has domain
OutcomeGroupc
has range
Outcomec

outcomeClassificationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/outcomeClassification

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The type of outcome.
has domain
Outcomec
has range
OutcomeClassificationc

outcomeConditionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/outcomeCondition

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
A side effect outcome condition.
has domain
Outcomec
has range
Conditionc

outcomeGroupop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/outcomeGroup

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Relates a pico to an outcome group
has domain
PICOc
has range
OutcomeGroupc

parentInterventionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/parentIntervention

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The parent intervention
has domain
Interventionc
has range
Interventionc

parentOutcomeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/parentOutcome

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
References the parent outcome
has domain
Outcomec
has range
Outcomec

populationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/population

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
A population
has domain
PICOc
has range
Populationc

scheduleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/schedule

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
schedule of an intervention
has domain
Interventionc
has range
Schedulec

settingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/setting

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
setting of an intervention
has domain
Interventionc
has range
Settingc

sexop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/sex

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The sex of a population
has domain
Populationc
has range
Sexc

Data Properties

isComparatordp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/isComparator

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
The comparator flag.
has domain
Interventionc
has range
boolean

outcomeTextdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/outcomeText

is defined by
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
Free text associated with an Outcome.
has domain
Outcomec
has range
lang string

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

core
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/core/
dc
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
files
http://data.cochrane.org/sites/data.cochrane.org/files/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
pico
http://data.cochrane.org/ontologies/pico/
proton
http://proton.semanticweb.org/protonsys#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
xmlschema
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#